IntroductionPresupposition is originated from the discipline of viewpoint and it had been proposed simply by German philosopher Ferge in 1892. In the 1960s, presupposition moved into the area of linguistics and became a significant strategy in semantics. Later in the early 1970s, Keenan released presupposition to the pragmatics to explain a relationship between a speaker as well as the appropriateness of your sentence in a context (Levinson: 177). Consequently, presupposition could be distinguished in to two groups: semantic presupposition and practical presupposition. This kind of thesis is mainly centered on the exploration of presupposition in semantics from the perspectives of features and challenges of presupposition. For the sake of looking for the approaches to the problems, the writer as well brings two pragmatic theories of presupposition into dialogue.
Part My spouse and i. Two Methods to PresuppositionIn the linguistics, two approaches to presupposition are semantic and sensible. Semantic presupposition views the sentence contact in terms of fact relations although pragmatic presupposition describes paragraphs as a great interaction between individuals.
A. Semantic PresuppositionIn ordinary language, of course , to presuppose something means to suppose it, and the narrower technical use in semantics is related to this kind of (Saeed: 93). In semantics, the meaning of any sentence is founded on the sentence in your essay itself rather than something constructed by the members. The semantic presupposition is merely concerned about the truth value in the statements. As an example, a)John were able to stop in period.
b)John attempted to stop in time. (Suo: 130)In the case in point, sentence a) presupposes word b), in other words, if it is authentic that John managed to remain in time, it must be true that John attempted to stop in time. Meanwhile, in the event this proposition is phony, the presupposition that David tried to remain in time still exists. However , only the real truth of sentence in your essay b) does not tell anything at all concerning the consequence whether this individual stopped in time or certainly not. Based on the analysis, we could draw a truth stand for this presupposition: a bT в†’ TF в†’ TT or Farrenheit в†ђ TThis table is definitely an overt description from the truth associations between phrase a) and b). In the event that sentence a) is true, then its presupposition b) is additionally true. If sentence a) is bogus, then the fact of b) still survives. While in the event that sentence b) is true, phrase a) may be either authentic or phony. The meaning of presupposition in semantics is on such basis as truth associations.
B. Sensible PresuppositionCompared with semantic presupposition- a truth-relation approach, sensible presupposition is definitely an interactional approach in interpreting the sentence relationships.
Stalnaker argues that presupposition is essentially a pragmatic phenomenon: part of the set of assumptions is made simply by participants within a conversation, which usually he terms the common floor (Saeed: 101). This prevalent ground is the mutual know-how shared simply by both presenter and hearer. For example , " I i am afraid my car stopped working. " The presupposition with this utterance is that the speaker provides a car, which is known to the hearer. Yet , if the hearer originally won't know the fact, on hearing the utterance, s/he may take it being a common ground for a further conversation. By virtue of context, ideal presupposition may help the hearer understand the utterance of the speaker. During the conversation, both loudspeaker and hearer are doing the turn-taking and so they can depend on the former utterances to perform a smooth connection.
By comparison of semantic presupposition and sensible presupposition, we are able to gain a better understanding of this kind of notion utilized in the linguistics. However , major of this thesis is within the presupposition inside the semantics. As a result, the following parts will be concentrated on the semantic presupposition.
Portion II. Top features of Semantic PresuppositionIn semantics, presupposition possesses unique features: staying different from entailment, presupposition can be stable beneath negation. It can be produced not only by the...
References: evinson, Sophie C. Pragmtics. Beijing: Language Teaching and Researching Press, 2005.
Saeed, John I. Semantics. Beijing: Foreign Language Educating and Researching Press, 2005.